## Asset Turnover

The asset turnover ratio is calculated by dividing the company's total sales by its total assets (or average total assets).

The asset turnover ratio indicates how effectively a company utilizes its assets to generate sales and is a key indicator of operational efficiency and asset utilization. A higher asset turnover ratio generally signifies better efficiency, as it implies that the company generates more revenue per unit of assets invested.

## Return on Assets

Return on Assets (ROA) ratio is calculated by dividing net income by total assets (or average total assets) and expressing the result as a percentage.

ROA indicates how efficiently a company utilizes its assets to generate earnings. A higher ROA suggests that the company is more efficient in using its assets to generate profits. ROA is a key financial metric used by investors, analysts, and managers to evaluate a company's profitability and asset utilization.

## Return on Equity

Return on Equity (ROE) measures a company's profitability relative to the equity invested by shareholders, calculated as:

ROE reflects how well a company uses equity to generate profits.For potential and current investors, ROE is crucial in making investment decisions. It provides a snapshot of financial health and potential growth, helping investors decide where to allocate their funds for optimal returns.

**Value Driver Analysis - DuPont Analysis**

DuPont Analysis is a comprehensive financial performance framework that breaks down the return on equity (ROE) into several components to give deeper insights into what is driving a company's profitability.

Developed by the DuPont Corporation in the 1920s, this method helps in understanding the financial leverage and operational efficiency of a company by dissecting ROE into three primary components:

Asset Turnover (Sales ÷ Assets)

Profitability (Net Income ÷ Sales)

Leverage (Assets ÷ Equity)

Return on Assets (ROA) can be calculated from the first two of the three components above:

Asset Turnover = Sales ÷ Assets

Net Margin = Net Income ÷ Sales

By multiplying these two components, you get the ROA:

ROA = Net Profit ÷ Assets

The breakdown of ROA into these two factors is particularly useful for financial analysis and diagnosis because it allows analysts to better understand the sources of efficiency or inefficiency in the company. For example, if the ROA is low, by looking at asset turnover and net margin separately, one can determine whether the problem is due to low efficiency in the use of assets or low profitability on sales.

The third component i.e. the leverage ratio measures the ratio of a company's total assets to its equity, also known as the equity multiplier. It quantifies the degree of leverage or financial leverage employed by the company. Leverage refers to the use of borrowed funds, or debt, to finance investments with the goal of increasing potential returns. A higher ratio indicates greater leverage, meaning the company relies more on debt financing in comparison to equity financing. This ratio is crucial for assessing a company's risk profile and financial stability, as higher leverage can amplify both the potential for higher returns and the risk of financial distress if the company's earnings fail to meet interest and debt repayment obligations.

The return on equity (ROE) can be calculated by multiplying the ROA with the leverage ratio.

ROA = Net Profit ÷ Assets

Leverage = Assets ÷ Equity

ROE = Net Profit ÷ Equity

This relationship reveals that ROE is influenced both by the company's operational efficiency (as shown by ROA) and its use of financial leverage. Higher leverage can

amplify ROE as long as ROA remains positive, but it also increases financial risk, highlighting the delicate balance companies must manage between using debt and maintaining healthy earnings.